Simulation-Augmented Methods for Safe and Efficient Manoeuvres in Harbour Areas
|Simulation-Augmented Methods for Safe and Efficient Manoeuvres in Harbour Areas|
|Autor||Knud Benedict, Matthias Kirchhoff, Michael Gluch, Sandro Fischer, Michael Baldauf, Michéle Schaub|
|In:||TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation|
Safety of navigation is especially challenging and critical when a ship approaches and manoeuvres in harbour areas. Improving the safety especially in the first and last phase of a voyage is crucial and requires measures addressing both the human and technical-technological elements including support systems that shall provide human operators with information relevant for decision making. The present situation is characterized by the introduction of numerous sophisticated technical and support systems often integrated with several components becoming increasingly complex. On the users end, changes are not that obvious and not that rapid as for technology. However, new approaches are under development or already in use. They are characterized by applying and adapting solutions from other transport modes. In this way, tasks and procedures on ships, that are highly safety-relevant and containing high portions of manoeuvring activities have been changed to high back-up procedures as in air planes. For port manoeuvres e.g. the system of pilot/co-pilot was introduced on ferries in a sense that one officer is operating and the other is monitoring and checking the safe performance. In cruise shipping, new structures replacing the traditional rank-based with a flexible system based on job functions. This system creates a kind of a safety net around the person conning the vessel. Each operation is cross checked before execution by one or two other persons. The first obvious consequence is higher costs due to doubling personnel. On the other hand there is also a need for a technology appropriately supporting the checking officer by enabling her or him to monitor what the conning officer is doing. “Fast-Time Manoeuvring Simulation Technology” (FTS) developed at the Institute for Innovative Ship Simulation and Maritime Systems (ISSIMS) has huge potential to fulfil this task. FTS calculates within one second of computing time up to 1000 seconds of real manoeuvring time by a very complex ship-dynamic simulation model for rudder, engine and thruster manoeuvres. It enables prompt prediction of all manoeuvres carried out by the conning officer for the observing officer, too. Predictions of path and motion status allow all officers to see whether the manoeuvring actions have at least the correct tendency or indicating the need for corrections. This new type of support is called Simulation-Augmented Manoeuvring Design and Monitoring (SAMMON) – it allows not only overlooking the next manoeuvring segment ahead but also for the following or even for series of manoeuvring segments. This technology has been used within two research projects: COSINUS (Co-operative Ship Operation in Integrated Maritime Traffic Systems) set out for implementing FTS into integrated ship bridges and to also communicate the manoeuvre plans and display it to VTS centres. Within the European project MUNIN (Maritime Unmanned Navigation through Intelligence in Networks) this technology has been used to investigate if it is possible to steer autonomous ships, in case it would be necessary.